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5 DERNIERS ARTICLES
- Concept of the electronic system
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- Ignition system timing
- Professional brake repair
- Right way to handle the warped and worn brake disc
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 Right way to handle the warped and worn brake disc Alerter l'administrateur Recommander à un ami Lien de l'article 

Replacing your angled or beat brake discs on a Toyota is article that you can do yourself. Although best bodies anticipate that it's article that you accept to booty to the boutique for, with aloof a little bit of knowhow, and this step-by-step guide, you will be able to do it all yourself. Aboriginal of all, there are a few things that you are activity to need. You are, of course, activity to charge the fresh brake disc and a jack. You will additionally charge your lug bend and a Phillips arch screwdriver. Last, but not least, you will charge a C clamp, an accessible end ratchet, and a asleep draft hammer. Aback you get all of that stuff, accumulate reading, and you will see aloof how accessible it is to alter this yourself. The aboriginal footfall is, of course, to abolish the brake caliper. To do this, you would go about it aloof like you were activity to alter your brake pad. You do this by jacking up the car, talking off the tire, and afresh removing the caliper. After you get it off, you charge to adhere it out of the way with a bond of some kind. Never aloof let your calipers hang! If you capital to, you could booty the caliper off, but afresh you would accept to alleviate the breach line, and no one wants to do that. Thus, if you can aloof get it blind out of your way, you will be fine. Now that it's out of your way you accept to abolish the affair that was captivation your caliper. As you will see, removing that is aloof like removing the caliper. Artlessly booty off the two bolts in the back, and it's is off! Be abiding not to lose any of the bolts that you booty off, because you are activity to charge those to reattach it later! Now all you accept to do is booty off your brake tube. You can do this application the ample Phillips arch screwdriver that we talked about you needing. Depending on the archetypal of your Toyota, you may accept to booty off one or added bolts to abolish it. In some attenuate cases, your screws could be stripped. If they are, you may accept to assignment them out. Either way, aback you get the screws out, you can artlessly accelerate that old anchor disc appropriate off the hub. Every now and again, you will apprehension that the old anchor discs do not appetite to appear off. If that is the case, you are activity to appetite to use that asleep draft bang we talked about. This is activity to alleviate things up a bit. After a few adamantine hits, you will be able to booty off that old breach disc. Aback you booty it off, you can booty your fresh anchor discs, which will be all nice and shiny, and abode it aback on. As always, the accession is aloof the about-face of how you removed everything. Aloof do not balloon to alter the anchor disc screw. If you do, afresh you are in for one heck of a ride aback you go to stop! If you accept never afflicted your own brakes before, afresh you are activity to apprehension that this is not a acceptable job for you. After all, the accomplished aboriginal allotment of accomplishing this involves the actuality that you accept afflicted your own anchor pads. That does not beggarly that you cannot do it, it aloof agency that it is activity to accomplish aggregate a bit harder. Also, be abiding to boutique about for a acceptable amount on a fresh anchor disc. Some places will try to blackmail you for a Toyota Anchor disc, and that is not article that you should accept to put up with. After all, the accomplished point of alteration it yourself is to save money.

  Aucun commentaire | Ecrire un nouveau commentaire Posté le 31-05-2011 à 06h55

 Professional brake repair Alerter l'administrateur Recommander à un ami Lien de l'article 

When an agent abettor presses bottomward on the anchor pedal, the adept butt compresses aqueous sending hydraulic burden to the brake pad. Back the pads appear into acquaintance with the rotors, they actualize abundant abrasion to apathetic down, and eventually stop the vehicle. Best cars accept a disc arrangement affiliated to the caster or axle, which is affiliated to the hydraulic system. The disc is about fabricated of casting adamant and works with the rotor and the pads to actualize the abrasion that will apathetic the car's wheels; the best accepted anchor adjustment account is a brake pad replacement. The pads are fabricated of adamantine amoebic material, and appear with a apparatus that will accomplish a squealing complete back they accept beat too thin; back the pads accomplish acquaintance with the rotors, it will accomplish a squealing complete that indicates the pads charge replacement. The exhausted brake hose can become an austere issue, and crave rotor backup if they are acclimated to long, acceptance continued acquaintance with the metal genitalia after the absorber from the pads. The force used to actually stop a car is far greater than the force applied by simply pressing a foot on the brake pedal. The hydraulic system is a part of the brake system: the hydraulics creates enough pressure to apply force to the brake disc that will create the friction to actually slow the car. Brake fluid is a type of hydraulic fluid that transfers the hydraulic force through the hydraulic lines, and into the braking mechanism. Typically, when the brake pedal pushes all the way to the floor, it is an indicator of low brake fluid or a leak in the hydraulic system that will require immediate attention through brake repair service. If it is determined that there is a leak, the part should be replaced before operation of the vehicle. If there is low brake fluid, it will need a refill. Warning lights are the first indication that there may be an issue with the braking system, but paying attention to how the car feels during vehicle operation can also help to determine if the car should be serviced. A "soft" pedal that requires more pressure applied to stop the vehicle is an indicator of a brake system issue. There may also be an issue with the brake system if the car appears to pull or steer toward one side while braking.

  Aucun commentaire | Ecrire un nouveau commentaire Posté le 31-05-2011 à 07h06

  Ignition system timing Alerter l'administrateur Recommander à un ami Lien de l'article 

Ignition occurs some time before top dead center (BTDC) during the compression stroke of the piston. This time is measured in degrees of crankshaft rotation BTDC. For a modern SI engine, this timing is typically 8 to 10 degrees for the basic mechanical setting with the engine running at low speed (low rpm). This basic timing is set by the design of the mechanical coupling between the crankshaft and the distributor. The basic timing may be adjusted slightly in many older cars by physically rotating the distributor housing. As the engine speed increases, the angle through which the crankshaft rotates in the time required to burn the fuel and air mixture increases. For this reason, the spark must occur at a larger angle BTDC for higher engine speeds. This change in ignition timing is called spark advance. That is, spark advance should increase with increasing engine rpm. In a conventional ignition system, the mechanism for this is called a centrifugal spark advance. It is shown in Figure 1.10. As engine speed increases, the distributor shaft rotates faster, and the weights are thrown outward by centrifugal force. The weights operate through a mechanical lever, so their movement causes a change in the relative angular position between the rubbing block on the breaker points and the distributor cam, and advances the time when the lobe opens the points. In addition to speed-dependent spark advance, the ignition timing needs to be adjusted as a function of intake manifold pressure. Whenever the throttle is nearly closed, the manifold pressure is low (i.e., nearly a vacuum). The combustion time for the air—fuel mixture is longer for low manifold pressure conditions than for high manifold pressure conditions (i.e., near atmospheric pressure). As a result, the spark timing must be advanced for low pressure conditions to maintain maximum power and fuel economy. The mechanism to do this is a vacuum-operated spark advance, also shown in Figure 1.10. The vacuum advance mechanism has a flexible diaphragm connected through a tie rod to the plate on which the breaker points are mounted. One side of the diaphragm is open to atmospheric pressure; the other side is connected through a hose to manifold vacuum. As manifold vacuum increases, the diaphragm is deflected (atmospheric pressure pushes it) and moves the breaker point plate to advance the timing. Ignition timing significantly affects engine performance and exhaust emissions; therefore, it is one of the major factors that are electronically controlled in the modern SI engine. The performance of the ignition system and the spark advance mechanism has been greatly improved by electronics parts control systems. Because ignition timing is critical to engine performance, controlling it precisely through all operating conditions has become a major application of digital electronics, as explained in Chapter 7. It will be shown in Chapter 7 that ignition timing is actually computed as a function of engine operating conditions in a special-purpose digital computer known as the electronic engine control system. This computation of spark timing has much greater flexibility for optimizing engine performance than a mechanical distributor and is one of the great benefits of electronic engine control.

  Aucun commentaire | Ecrire un nouveau commentaire Posté le 01-06-2011 à 05h58

  Alerter l'administrateur Recommander à un ami Lien de l'article 

Another major automotive subsystem is the Suspension System, which is the mechanical assembly that connects each wheel to the car body. The primary purpose of the suspension system is to isolate the car body from the vertical motion of the wheels as they travel over the rough road surface.

The suspension system can be understood with reference to Figure 1.14, which illustrates the major components. Notice that the wheel assembly is connected through a movable assembly to the body. The weight of the car is supported by Leaf Spring. In addition, there is a so-called shock absorber (sometimes a strut), which is in effect a viscous damping device. There is a similar assembly at each wheel, although normally there are differences in the detailed configuration between front and rear wheels.

The mass of the car body is called the sprung mass, that is, the mass that is supported by Tie Rod. The mass of the wheel assemblies at the other end of the springs is called unsprung mass. All springs have the property that the deflection of the spring is proportional to the applied axial force. The proportionality constant is known as the spring rate. The springs are selected for each car such that the car body height is as desired for the unloaded car. Typically, the weight on the front wheels is greater than on the rear wheels; therefore, the front springs normally have a higher spring rate than the rear.

Similar to the springs, the shock absorbers (struts) also produce a force that acts to support the weight of the car. However, unlike the springs, the shock absorbers produce a force in response to the motion of the wheel assembly relative to the car body. Figure 1.15 is an illustration of a typical shock absorber.

  Aucun commentaire | Ecrire un nouveau commentaire Posté le 01-06-2011 à 06h59

 Concept of the electronic system Alerter l'administrateur Recommander à un ami Lien de l'article 

A system is a collection of components that function together to perform a specific task. Various systems are encountered in everyday life. It is common practice to refer to the bones of the human body as the skeletal system.

Electronic systems are similar in the sense that they consist of collections of electronic and electrical parts interconnected in such a way as to perform a specific function. The components of an electronic system include transistors, diodes, resistors, and capacitors, as well as standard Electronics Parts such as switches and connectors among others. All of these components are interconnected with individual wires or with printed circuit boards. In addition, many automotive electronic systems incorporate specialized components known as Pressure Sensor or actuators that enable the electronic system to interface with the appropriate automotive mechanical systems.

Any electronic system can be described at various levels of abstraction, from a pictorial description or a schematic drawing at the lowest level to a block diagram at the highest level. For the purposes of the present discussion, this higher-level abstraction is preferable. At this level, each functional subsystem is characterized by inputs, outputs, and the relationship between input and output. Normally only the system designer or maintenance technician would be concerned with detailed schematics and the internal workings of the system. Furthermore, the only practical way to cover the vast range of automotive electronic systems is to limit our discussion to this so- called system level of abstraction. It is important for the reader to realize that there are typically many different circuit configurations capable of performing a given function.

  Aucun commentaire | Ecrire un nouveau commentaire Posté le 01-06-2011 à 07h15


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